Session 1Cancer Biomarkers
A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. Cancer biomarkers, particular those associated with genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations, often offer a quantitative way to determine when individuals are predisposed to particular types of cancers. Cancer biomarkers can also be useful in establishing a specific diagnosis. This is particularly the case when there is a need to determine whether tumors are of primary or metastatic origin. Another use of biomarkers in cancer medicine is for disease prognosis, which take place after an individual has been diagnosed with cancer. Cancer biomarkers can also offer value in predicting or monitoring cancer recurrence.
Session 2Cancer therapeutics
Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality. Complete removal of the cancer without damage to the rest of the body (that is, achieving cure with near-zero adverse effects) is the ideal goal of treatment and is often the goal in practice. Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in only one of these genes does not. The deficiencies can arise through mutations, epigenetic alterations or inhibitors of one or both of the genes. The incidence of concurrent cancer during pregnancy has risen due to the increasing age of pregnant mothers and due to the incidental discovery of maternal tumors during prenatal ultrasound examinations. Cancer treatment needs to be selected to do least harm to both the woman and her embryo/fetus. In some cases a therapeutic abortion may be recommended.
Session 3Cancer Diagnostics
Cancer Diagnostic testing involves tests and procedures to confirm the presence of disease and identify the correct tumor type, location, extent and stage. Cancer Diagnostics plays an important role throughout your cancer treatment. Physical Examination, Laboratory tests, Biopsy, Imaging tests, Nuclear medicine scans, Endoscopy, Genetic tests are some of the diagnostic tests which are being carried out in the present world.
Session 4Cancer Immunology
Cancer immunology is a branch of immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer cells. Cancer immune surveillance is considered to be an important host protection process to inhibit carcinogenesis and to maintain cellular homeostasis. In the interaction of host and tumor cells, three essential phases have been proposed: elimination, equilibrium and escape, which are designated the ‘three E’s'. The principles of cancer immunoediting have set the foundations for understanding the dual host-protective and tumor sculpting actions of immunity on cancer and establishing the basis for novel individualized cancer immunotherapies.
Session 5Clinical Research in Cancer
Clinical trials are the final links in the chains of knowledge and for determining the roles of therapeutic advances. Clinical trials are the final links in the chains of knowledge and for determining the roles of therapeutic advances. Traditional clinical trials are straightforward and purposely simple. Traditional clinical trials focus on large populations. Clinical trials keep getting bigger, making therapies more expensive and delaying their availability to patients.
Session 6Metastatic carcinoma
Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells to new areas of the body often by way of the lymph system or bloodstream. Transcoelomic, Lymphatic spread, Hematogenous spread, transplantation or implantation are the different routes of cancer metastasis. Metastasis is the leading reason for the resultant mortality of patients with cancer. Once tumor cells acquire the ability to penetrate the surrounding tissues, the process of invasion is instigated as these motile cells pass through the basement membrane and extracellular matrix, progressing to intravasation as they penetrate the lymphatic or vascular circulation.
Oncogenomics is a sub-field of genomics that characterizes cancer-associated genes. DNA sequencing: Pyrosequencing, Array Comparative Genome Hybridization, Representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis, Digital Karyotyping, Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC)-end sequencing (end-sequence profiling) are some of the methods of Genome sequencing. Bioinformatics technologies allow the statistical analysis of genomic data. The functional characteristics of oncogenes has yet to be established. Potential functions include their transformational capabilities relating to tumor formation and specific roles at each stage of cancer development. Comparative oncogenomics uses cross-species comparisons to identify oncogenes. Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in only one of these genes does not. The deficiencies can arise through mutations, epigenetic alterations or inhibitors of one of the genes.
Session 8Cell Biology and Cancer
Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumors or flooding the blood with abnormal cells. Cell division is a normal process used by the body for growth and repair. Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells. Lymphoma is a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphocytes . plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies. Initially, often no symptoms are noticed. When advanced, bone pain, bleeding, frequent infections, and anemia may occur. A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Thus, malignant tumors made of cancellous bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, vascular, or hematopoietic tissues are, by definition, considered sarcomas.
Session 9Cancer stem cells and drug resistance
Cancer stem cells are cancer cells that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. The "mutation in stem cell niche populations during development" hypothesis claims that these developing stem populations are mutated and then reproduce so that the mutation is shared by many descendants. These daughter cells are much closer to becoming tumors and their numbers increase the chance of a cancerous mutation. De-differentiation of mutated cells may create stem cell-like characteristics, suggesting that any cell might become a cancer stem cell. The design of new drugs for targeting CSCs requires understanding the cellular mechanisms that regulate cell proliferation. The first advances in this area were made with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their transformed counterparts in leukemia, the disease for which the origin of CSCs is best understood.
Session 10Breast cancer
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin. Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, and family history. Women may reduce their risk of breast cancer by maintaining a healthy weight, drinking less alcohol, being physically active and breastfeeding their children. High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer. The management of breast cancer depends on various factors, including the stage of the cancer and the age of the patient. Increasingly aggressive treatments are employed in accordance with the poorer the patient's prognosis and the higher the risk of recurrence of the cancer following treatment. Prognosis is usually given for the probability of progression-free survival (PFS) or disease-free survival (DFS). These predictions are based on experience with breast cancer patients with similar classification. Treatments are being evaluated in trials. This includes individual drugs, combinations of drugs, and surgical and radiation techniques Investigations include new types of targeted therapy, cancer vaccines, oncolytic virotherapy, and immunotherapy.
Session 11Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. A complete understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive. The primary risk factors are obesity, age and family history. Prostate cancer is very uncommon in men younger than 45, but becomes more common with advancing age. The only test that can fully confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a biopsy, the removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination. However, prior to a biopsy, less invasive testing can be conducted. Men who get regular exercise may have a slightly lower risk, especially vigorous activity and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. The first decision to be made in managing prostate cancer is whether treatment is needed. Prostate cancer, especially low-grade forms found in elderly men, often grows so slowly that no treatment is required. Treatment of aggressive prostate cancers may involve surgery (i.e. radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy including brachytherapy (prostate brachytherapy) and external beam radiation therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), chemotherapy, oral chemotherapeutic drugs (Temozolomide/TMZ), cryosurgery, hormonal therapy, or some combination.
Session 12Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is a tumor growth characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. The major symptoms include breathing difficulties, pain in the chest area, coughing with blood, Loss of appetite, recurring infections. The common causes include Smoking, exposure to radon gas, asbestos, ionizing radiation, air pollution. Lung cancer may also occur due to genetic factors. Diagnosis of lung cancer includes various methods like Chest X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Biopsy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Lung cancers are classified in to adenocarcinoma, squamous carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and others. Primary lung cancers themselves most commonly metastasize to the brain, bones, liver and adrenal glands. The evaluation of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) staging uses the TNM classification. Smoking prevention and smoking cessation are effective ways of preventing the development of lung cancer. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the cancer's specific cell type, how far it has spread, and the person's performance status. Common treatments include palliative care, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Targeted therapy of lung cancer is growing in importance for advanced lung cancer.
Session 13Other major cancer types
Gynecologic cancers are the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells originating in the female reproductive organs, including the cervix, ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina and vulva. Brain cancer can have a wide variety of symptoms including seizures, sleepiness, confusion, and behavioral changes. Blood Cancers affect the Blood, Bone Marrow and Lymphatic system. leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma are the major categories of Blood cancer. The liver can be affected by primary liver cancer, which arises in the liver, or by cancer which forms in other parts of the body and then spreads to the liver. Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells. Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Bladder cancer can be subdivided into noninvasive, or superficial, and invasive, with the former having much better treatment outcomes than the latter. Kidney cancer is staged by measuring the size of the tumor, the location of the cancer cells either confined to the kidney, locally spread, or widespread beyond the fibrous tissue surrounding the kidney. Smoking and taking certain pain medicines for a long time can increase the risk of adult kidney cancer. Pancreatic cancer is categorized depending on whether it affects the exocrine or endocrine functions of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer is aggressive with few symptoms until the cancer is advanced. Thyroid cancers are often diagnosed by routine examination of the neck or are unintentionally found by x-rays or other imaging scans that were performed for other reasons. Cancers are often described by the body part that they originated in. However, some body parts contain multiple types of tissue, so for greater precision, cancers are additionally classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells originated from.
Session 14Cancer Prognosis
Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. Several types of cancer are associated with high survival rates, including breast, prostate, testicular and colon cancer. Brain and pancreatic cancers have much lower median survival rates which have not improved as dramatically over the last forty years. Indeed, pancreatic cancer has one of the worst survival rates of all cancers.
Session 15Cancer prevention and Management
Reducing the risk of certain cancers may be possible through dietary and other lifestyle changes. Other lifestyle changes reduce the risk of several types of cancer. Early detection of cancerous or precancerous growths can save lives. People with cancer want to do everything they can to combat the disease, manage its symptoms, and cope with the side effects of treatment. Many turn to complementary health approaches.
Session 16Surgical Oncology and Radiology
Surgery is the oldest form of cancer treatment, and for most patients, part of the curative plan includes surgery. The most important part of the consultation with the surgeon is a complete history and physical exam. Surgery is used to diagnose stage and treat cancer, and certain cancer-related symptoms. Surgery plays an important role in the management of both early cancers as well as advanced cancers in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Session 17Sarcomas and Carcinomas
Sarcoma is a tumor that affects connective tissue. Soft tissue sarcomas, as the name suggests, affect the soft tissues; these include fat, muscle, blood vessels, deep skin tissues, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. Sarcomas are a relatively rare type of cancer.
Carcinoma is the most common type of cancer. It begins in the epithelial tissue of the skin, or in the tissue that lines the internal organs, such as the liver or kidneys.