Uppsala University, Sweden
Prevalence of HPV and HPV-related dysplasia in elderly women
Annika Lindström MD, PhD.
Senior consultant obstetrics and gynecology 50% .
Postdoc 50% Center for Clinical research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Sweden.
Earlier worked in hospitals in gynecology Falun and Gävle, and gynecologic oncology Akademiskasjukhuset, Uppsala , Sweden and Radiumhospitalet, Oslo Norway. Doctoral thesis: Prognostic factors for squamous cell cervical cancer, tumor markers, hormones, smoking and S-phase fraction, Umeå University, Sweden 2010. Present research in cervical cancer prevention in elderly women and Urethral Pain Syndrome in women.
Despite a high incidence of cervical cancer (CC) in women over the age of 60, elderly women are not included in the screening programs for cervical cancer prevention. In Sweden, about 30% of CC cases occur in women over 60 and the mortality rate is about 70% in this age group(1-3). Cervical cancer in women above the age of 65 is usually discovered at advanced stages and the prognosis is poor. During the past century, the average life expectancy for women has increased, and many women over 65 are healthy, continue to work, and have an active sex life. There are few studies on HPV prevalence in elderly women.We found an HPV prevalence of about 4 % in this age group and HPV clearance between HPV test one and two was about 40% when the second HPV test was done.Among women with two HPV positive tests there was a high prevalence of high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL) diagnosed by histology, which motivates screening to continue at older ages. In post-menopausal women, due to hormonal changes, the transformation zone where precursor lesions develop, is situated in the cervical canal and is therefore not accessible for proper examination and sampling. As a consequence Pap smear for conventional cytology or liquid based cytology (LBC), has a low sensitivity and diagnostic surveillance with colposcopy for biopsy has little value. Cytologically-based screening is not meaningful in this age group due to the low sensitivity of this method. The next step would be to introduce repeat HPV testing as a screening method and to find algorithms for sampling strategies such as self-sampling, test intervals and treatment options. Our results can serve as motivation to conduct studies focusing on older women, in order to effectively reduce the prevalence of cervical cancer in this age group.
David Perianayagam Arokiasami
Kamalnayan Bajaj Hospital, India
Analysis of IMRT/VMAT pre treatment verification method by using 2D Linear Detector Array in Head & Neck Cancers
David Perianayagam Arokiasami studied his Post MSc Diploma in Radiological Physics from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai in 1994. He is a Senior Consultant Medical Physicist and Radiation Safety Officer working in the field of Radiation Oncology for the past 22 Years in India. He is an expert in all kinds of Medical Physics related activities in Radiation Oncology. Expertise in External Beam Radiotherapy planning and its related QA for 3D CRT, IMRT, IGRT, SRS, SRT & RapidArc or VMAT,etc advanced treatment techniques by using high energy Photons. Expertise in performing the CAP Tests for the commissioning of Medical Linear Accelerators. He commissioned Various Medical Linear Accelerator like Varian, Elekta & Siemens along with Computerized TPS(Eclipse, Monaco, CMS-Xio) for the advanced treatment technologies of photons by using 3D RFA’s from different vendors like IBA, PTW. Expertise in HDR Brachytherapy in ICRT & interstitial applications for the different sites of malignant tumours. He had been to UMM, Mannheim, Germany to attend the Clinical training in IMRT and VMAT in October 2014. He had developed and established 5 cancer centers in India from the scrap. He did his Young Scientist Fellowship (YSF) in HDR Brachytherapy at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai through Gujarat Council on Science and Technology (GUJCOST) in 2002. He is the first person to Commission the Co-60 HDR Brachytherapy Unit GyenacSource in India. He had re-established Apollo Cancer Hospital, Bilaspur according to AERB National rules & regulations in 2016.He was a visiting Professor at DY Patil University, Kolhapur,India.
The verification of advanced Radiotherapy Treatment like IMRT/VMAT becomes necessary because of its complexity in the planning and delivery process. The beams used for the treatment are highly modulated and having many segments or beamlets of smaller sizes. The measurement of central axis dose at reference depth of modulated beam may not be easy with the 0.6cc Cylindrical Ionization chamber which is routinely used for the absolute dose measurement of high energy photon beams. The smaller size 0.015cc or pinpoint chambers can be utilized for the measurement of central axis dose of modulated beams. But the information acquired through point dose measurement is of very less importance in the dosimetrical verification of highly modulated beams. Rather one should aim to measure the dose fluence of the modulated beams which are used for the treatment. There are many methods of verifying the dose fluence of modulated beams. The 2D dose fluence of the modulated beam can be measured by using films, 2D amorphous silicon detector panel (Portal Dosimetry) and 2D Linear Detector Array of ionization chambers.
Materials: Pre-treatment verification plans of IMRT & VMAT are performed on Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator by using 2D LDA inserted in a solid phantom. The verification plans are modified to deliver the fields under the zero degree angles of gantry and collimator. Variety of combination of geometrical parameter of the planning systems are used viz Grid Spacing, Beamlet width, Minimum Segment width & Target margins to evaluate on the passing criteria of internationally recommended values (Gamma = <1, DTA = 3mm, %DD=3%). It has been observed that, the passing criteria values are attained for certain combination of TPS parameters. And the acceptable values are differing from each treatment plan for the observed combinations of the parameters. So it is aimed to collect the multiple data’s in order to validate the treatment plan of particular parameters and to construct the institutional based protocol for pre-treatment verification method of IMRT & VMAT by using 2D LDA.
Conclusion: In most of the combination of Geometrical Parameters of Treatment Planning system it has been observed that Gamma = <1 is predominant for DTA=3mm & %DD=5 with reference to the maximum dose. Internationally recommended values of passing criteria Gamma < 1 = >95%, DTA = 3mm, %DD = 3% must be re-evaluated for most probable combination of geometrical parameters of TPS.
Rasha Ahmed Khairy
Cairo Unversity, Egypt
Expression of Podoplanin in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Dysplasia
Rasha Ahmed Khairy has completed her M.D at the age of 33 years from Faculty of medicine, Cairo University . She is lecturer of pathology in faculty of medicine, Cairo University.She has published 9 papers in reputed journals and has joined as a reviwer in reputed journal.
Introduction: In human cancers, podoplanin expression and its correlation with tumour invasive potential raise its possible role as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for cancer.Aim:To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of podoplanin in laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and dysplasia.
Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 60 archived, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks of 40 cases of laryngeal SCC and 20 cases of dysplastic lesions. The samples were immunohistochemically analysed for podoplanin expression.
Results: Podoplanin expression was significantly higher in laryngeal SCC (90%) than laryngeal dysplastic lesions (55%) (p-value=0.002). The expression of podoplanin was significantly increased with the higher grades of dysplasia (p-value=0.016). A significant positive correlation was detected between podoplanin expression in laryngeal SCC and depth of tumour invasion (p-value=0.035), and stage (p-value=0.026).
Conclusion: The high expression of podoplanin in laryngeal SCC and its significant correlation with poor prognostic parameters recommends podoplanin as a prognostic marker in laryngeal SCC. In addition, increased podoplanin expression with higher grades of dysplasia, supports its role in malignant transformation and allows us to recommend its evaluation in premalignant lesions.
Roma biomed research martiri liberta’20060 mediglia Italy , Italy
Exposure to industrial pollutants in the promotion of nasopharyngeal cancer: an open question
Introduction and Objectives : Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma is a cancer widely associated with Epstein-Barr virus .Is common in Guangdong ,( China) , in Malaysia and in Indonesia : the activation of the cancerogenesis process happens after the exposure to some environmental parameters ,that epidemiological studies ,have indicated with various dietary habits , mainly for salted fish consumption .Purpose of this work is to highlight, such as exposure to compounds, such as formaldehyde, present in the different working conditions of these countries, may be the real cause, to establish the carcinogenic process
Materials and Methods: The most recent publications regarding the impact of various external factors on Pub Med, Google , TOXLINE, Chem Abstract, were analyzed ,with the radiological data ,presents in Milan hospitals database
Results: The relationship between food consumption and nasopharyngeal cancer, are not clear and statistically insignificant In Indonesia, Malaysia the preparation of natural rubber, for the use of formaldehyde ,is dangerous environmental factor .The same exposition is a risk factor in Guangdong ,where many workers are employed in the wood panel industry . Incidence ,of cancer in this Chinese ethnic groups is resulting in decrease in the same populations when migrate from these Chinese districts, to other countries. Few cases are recorded in Italy ,in the five past years ,without apparent involvement of ethnic environmental factors, and HBV infection
Discussion: In the production of natural rubber. ,various steps of their preparation and production , as the stripping , the drying and coagulation , without eminently of environmental hygiene precautions ,exhibiting a lot of people to formaldehyde . The same conditions in industrial production of wood panel in Guangdong
The relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and nasopharyngeal cancer, is demonstrated by the fact that epidemiological studies on the population of this Chinese district that in migrant populations and not more exposed to pollutants, the appearance of these tumors decreases. Also examined radiological data, about thirty cases, they show that in Italy, the incidence of cancer nasopharyngeal is absent in the Indonesian and Chinese ethnic groups
Conclusions: The EPST- BARR virus is a risk factor, if associated with exposure to compounds such as formaldehyde, present in industrial productions of countries such as Indonesia , Malaysia, and south China
University of Texas, M.D. Anderson , USA
Intratumoral heterogeneity in germ cell tumor of the testis: cellular vs genetic origin of cancer
Shi-Ming Tu, M.D., received his bachelor degree from the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, and medical degree from Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. He completed his medical oncology fellowship at the University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center,Houston, Texas, where he is currently a clinical professor in the Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology.Dr. Tu is a clinician, researcher, educator, and author. He specializes in the treatment of prostate and testicular cancers. His research interests include bone metastasis, intratumoral heterogeneity, and cancer stem cells. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed articles. His previous book, Origin of Cancers: Clinical Perspectives and Implications of a Stem-Cell Theory of Cancer, was published by Springer in 2010. His new book, Story of Hydra: Portrait of cancer as a stem-cell disease, will be published in fall of 2018.
Germ cell is an ideal stem cell, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis (NSGCT) is a prototypic tumor with stem-ness origins. We propose that NSGCT is the perfect tumor model to prove a cellular versus genetic origin of cancer subtypes. We distinguished five subtypes of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis (NSGCT)—embryonal, mixed choriocarcinoma, yolk sac-seminoma, mixed yolk sac, and mixed seminoma—on the basis of their distinct developmental lineages, histological makeups, and differentiation patterns. We found that lethality of testicular cancer may be attributable to certain tumor subtypes rather than specific driver mutations. Results from this study suggest that precision medicine may be more efficacious when it is directed at tumor subtypes rather than specific genetic mutations in testicular cancer, and perhaps in most solid tumors.
Osmania University, India
Cytotoxic Activity Of Acalypha Indica .L Hexane Extract On Breast Cancer Cell Lines (Mcf-7)
Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. The objective of the current study is to cytotoxic activity of Acalypha indica.L on breast cancer. The herb Acalypha indica.L which belongs to Euphorbiaceae family has multiple medicinal properties which include anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-helmintic, anti-ulcer, anti-venom, anti-cancerous, and neuro-protective activity. The present study emphasises cytotoxic activity of hexane leaf crude extract of Acalypha indica Linn. On mcf-7cell lines by MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay method using Cisplatin as a positive control. Hexane Crude extract of different concentrations (10µg/ml, 25µg/ml, 50µg/ml and 100µg/ml) were treated with cell lines, Out of these concentrations 50µg/ml showed maximum inhibitory effect (IC50 value). Hence the present study is taken up to systematically evaluate the anti-cancer properties of the extracts and also to isolate and characterize the active principles of Acalypha indica.
Tareg O. Mohammed
Tohoku University School of Medicine, Japan
Doxycycline inducible shRNA mediated knockdown of S100A11 impairs the migratory, invasive, and proliferative capacity of Adenocarcinoma cells
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) make 85% of lung cancers and adenocarcinomas are the most common type. Currently our understanding of the molecular signatures that drive the progression of lung adenocarcinoma is incomplete. S100A11, a member of the S100 protein family, contributes to the progression of lung adenocarcinoma, however the precise mechanism underlying its implication is unclear. By using doxycycline regulated shRNA mediated knockdown, we show that S100A11 required for the agressive properties of adenocarcinoma cells. Knockdown of S100A11 significantly reduced the migratory as well as invasive capability of H1975 cells. Confocal microscopic analyses suggested a dysregulation in cytoskeletal organization and impaired lamellipodia formation. Further, CCK-8 assay indicated that knockdown of S100A11 reduced the proliferative capacity of H1975 cells. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenic assay resulted in decreased tumor volumes in mice administered with doxycycline. Together, we report that S100A11 is an important molecule for the tumorigenic properties of H1975 cells and it may serve as a potential therapeutic target to attenuate the progression of lung adenocarcinomas.